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Narnia,  "The river land" "Nahar". Approfondimenti e curiositÓ

This is a working in progress for know the root of the Name NARNIA.

Valnerina are the valley in Umbria region in Italy that come from the river named NERA.

There are many word that start from Nar ( Nahar).

Santa Anatolia di Narco , from the peoples Naharki , but also Terni city was named " Interamna Nahar", but Narnia town ,  with the   Nera river , remain the place that better identify , the land on the river, "Nahar" this land are  Naharnia that are named letter Narnia.

 

Nahar River

 

 

From: "Kestutis Zemaitis" <kestutis5@hotmail.com>
To: fgiusepp2@tin.it
Subject: Nahar, Nera and Neris
Date: Tue, 17 Oct 2006 09:51:02 -0400

Dear Giuseppe,

As I am waiting for your booklet about Beata Lucia which my brother sent me on October 5th I also read your article about the word NAHAR meaning "river" in the Holy Scripture, and NAHARNA - "the river land".

Did you know that NERIS is one of the two largest rivers of Lithuania? Could there also be some connection with NAHAR, and with the river NERA of Narni? It is one of the ancient Indoeuropean water names related to Lithuanian word NARUS - "deep" and NERTI - "to dive, to swim under water". I do not know much about etymology but here is a little passage about NERIS in "Wikipedia":

"Etymologically, the name [Neris] is one of a class of water names, including Lithuanian Narotis, Narasa (rivers), Narutis (lake), Old Prussian Narus (the Narew), the Nara (near Moscow) and many others over the prehistoric Baltic range. These are related to Lithuanian narus, "deep", and nerti, "to dive".
More remote connections are obscure, although the root is believed to be Indoeuropean. There are a number of possibilities; perhaps Pokorny's 2nd *ner- "under" (Indogermanisches Etymologisches Woerterbuch, pp 765-766), perhaps Derksen's *nerH-, o-grade *norH- (Slavic Inherited Lexicon), perhaps a relation to the Greek god, Nereus, which may be from *snau-, "to give milk to", in the sense of "flow" (Partridge, Origins (1983)".
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neris

Hopefully you will find this interesting or may be even helpful in your research!
With my best wishes,
Kestutis

 

 

Narew (Old Prussian and Lithuanian: Naura, Belarusian: ?????) is a river in western Belarus and north-eastern Poland, a tributary of the Vistula river. With a length of 484 kilometres (36 in Belarus and 448 in Poland) it is the fifth longest Polish river. The basin is 75,175 sq. km (53,873 in Poland).

Narew originates in Belarus and flows into the Vistula river in Poland. The part between the Zegrze Lake, where it is joined by the Bug river, and Vistula is sometimes called Bugo-Narew. The name of the river comes from a Proto-Indo-European root *nr primarily associated with water (compare with Narva, Neretva, Neris, Ner and Nur).[1]

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narew

 

 

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Narva (historical German name Narwa) is an Estonian city located on the Russian border. The Narva River, which drains Lake Peipus, flows through the city. As of January 1, 2004 it has a population of 67,355. The total area is 84.54 km▓ which gives a population density of 796.7 inhabitants per km▓.

93.85% of the current population of Narva are Russian-speakers (86.41% are ethnic Russians), mostly either Soviet-era immigrants from parts of the former U.S.S.R. (mainly Russia) or their descendants. Much of the city was destroyed during World War II and for several years during the following reconstruction the Soviet authorities prohibited the return of any of Narva's pre-war residents (among whom ethnic Estonians had been the majority) thus radically altering the city's ethnic composition.

The reconstructed fortress of Narva (to the left) overlooking the Russian fortress of Ivangorod (to the right).

Founded during the Danish rule of northern Estonia in the 13th century, the castle and surrounding town of Narva became a possession of the Livonian Order after 1347. Captured briefly by Russians in 1555, Narva changed hands a few times, and after 1581 was controlled by Sweden. The city was reconquered by Russia in 1704 and remained in the Russian Empire until Estonian independence in 1918. Across the Narva River there is a Russian Ivangorod fortress, founded by Great Duke Ivan III of Muscovy in 1492 and sometimes referred to as Counter-Narva. During the Soviet times Narva and Ivangorod were twin cities, despite belonging to different republics. Before World War II, Ivangorod (in Estonian known as Jaanilinn) was part of Narva.

The famous Estonian chess player Paul Keres was born in Narva.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narva

 

The Narva or Narova is a river which drains the Lake Peipus, flowing on the border of Estonia and Russia. It flows through the cities of Narva/Ivangorod and Narva-J§esuu into Narva Bay, a part of the Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea. The Narva Reservoir, a large artificial lake (191 km▓), was formed on the river in 1956. The length of the river is 75 km, average width 300 metres and depth 5 metres. The largest tributary is the Plyussa River.

The river gives its name to the Narva culture.

 

Narva culture, ca. 5th to 4th millennium BC, an archaeological culture found in present-day Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Kaliningrad Oblast (former East Prussia), and adjacent portions of Poland and Russia. It is said to be a successor of the mesolithic Kunda culture. Named after the Narva River, it encompasses the whole of the European Neolithic down to the start of the bronze age. The technology was that of flint-based hunter-gatherers, with pottery related to the Pit-Comb Ware culture.

By the time of the Corded Ware culture, two distinct variants are recognized, one to the northeast, and another in the southwest, with the latter displaying characteristics of the earlier Funnelbeaker culture and then Corded Ware and Globular Amphora cultural elements, all of which may be seen as intrusive, and possibly, short-lived.

The northeastern variant seems to have remained largely independent: the impression is that this northeastern version was autochthonous; while nothing can be proven, it is inviting to assume it was Uralic-speaking, and that the present-day Estonians are in some manner descended from it.

The southwestern elements, then, can perhaps be identified with the earliest stratum of Baltic Indo-European culture, and ancestral to the Latvians, Lithuanians, and the now-extinct Old Prussians.

[edit]

 

Sources

  • The Indo-Europeanization of Northern Europe. Martin E. Huld & Karlene Jones-Bley editors, Journal of Indo-European Studies Monograph No. 17, Institute for the Study of Man, Washington, DC, 1996; these three articles:
  1. Algirdas Girinikas, "The Narva Culture and the Origin of the Baltic Culture", pp. 42-47.
  2. Rimute Rimantiene & Gintautas Cesnys, "The Pan-European Corded Ware Horizon (A-Horizon) and the Pamariu (Baltic Coastal) Culture", pp. 48-53.
  3. Ilze Loze, "Some Remarks about the Indo-Europeanization of the Northern Baltic Europe (in the Case of the Eastern Baltic Region)". pp. 59-77.

http://ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut/hum/kultt/vk/kriiska/tekstid/04.html

 

 

The Balts by Finland Bay

Algirdas Girininkas

Summary

 

By archaeological data, two stages or separate time periods in the development of the Narva culture can be distinquished in the prehistoric northern East Baltic. One stage is in the Early Neolithic, when the Early Narva culture was spread throughout the territory of present-day Estonia, Leningrad, Pskov and the western Smolensk area. It is possible that the Balto-finnougric hydronyms that linguists encounter in the territories of Estonia, Leningrad and Novgorod area from this time period.

During the second time period in the East Baltic, two distinct processes occurred. In the Middle Neolithic, north of the Daugava River and right up to Finland Bay, the Finno-Ugrians adopted many features of material and spiritual culture from the people of the Narva culture while they were spreading their own influence.We can consider this period the early pro-Baltic period, when the Finno-Ugrians adopted many elements of Narva material culture and enriched their lexican with the langua-ge of Narva material culture peoples. We can call this time period the Finno-Ugrinization period of the northern Narva culture

A different process occurred in the Middle and Late Neolithic south of the Daugava River. The Finno-Ugrians lived on separate islands within this Late Narva culture territory. Finno-Ugric hydronyms and traces of material culture have remained in this territory up to present times.

Neretva is a river in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia.

The total length is 225 km, of which 203 km in Herzegovina, while the final 22 km are in the Dubrovnik-Neretva county of Croatia.

The upper stream of Neretva has water of Class A purity and is almost certainly the coldest river water in the world, often as low as 7-8 degrees Celsius in the summer months. Neretva also has some endemic and very delicate, fragile life forms that are near extinction.

Neretva originates deep in the Dinaric Alps and flows through them creating a large gorge. It eventually expands into a wide valley which provides valuable agricultural land. There exists a large accumulation lake near Jablanica, created on the Neretva and at least three hydroelectric dams between Jablanica and Mostar.

The Bosnian government has recently made serious plans to allow foreign investors to build several more dams in upper stream and destroy the canyon by flooding it. This is protested by environmentalists who wish for the canyon, considered at least as beautiful as the Tara canyon in the nearby Montenegro, to remain untouched as it has so far.

The smaller rivers of Rakitnica, Rama and Trebižat flow into Neretva from the right, while Buna and Bregava flow into it from the left. The last 30 km of Neretva's stream form an alluvial delta, before the river empties into the Adriatic Sea.

The biggest city on the Neretva is Mostar. Other towns on the Neretva include Konjic, Metkovic, Jablanica, Capljina as well as the historical village of Pocitelj.

The Old Bridge (also Stari most), a major architectural monument over Neretva in Mostar and a World Heritage Site, was destroyed by Croatian shelling during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina on November 9, 1993. The bridge was rebuilt and the grand opening was held on July 23, 2004.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neretva

 

The Ner is a river in central Poland, with sources to the south east of Lˇdz. It is one of the subsidiaries of the Warta River.

 

Nara in giappone

Regione giapponese al centro dell’arcipelago nipponico.

cittÓ poco a sud di Ky˘to che Ŕ stata capitale del Giappone dal 710 al 794 d.C. (periodo indicato con il nome di periodo Nara). ...

Welcome to Nara

 

Located almost at the center of the Japanese archipelago, Nara Prefecture is an inland prefecture surrounded by the four prefectures of Osaka to the west, Kyoto to the north, Wakayama to the south and Mie to the east. Nara, with a total population of some 1.44 million, has a diversified geography, a plane to the north and the Kii Mountain Range, or 'the Roof of Kinki (or Osaka Area)' to the south. Approx. 60% of the prefectural area is occupied by forest. Its main industries are textiles, timber and lumber.
Nara occupies an important position in the history of Japan; it is said that the first state was located in Nara. Nara is also a home of various World Heritage sites such as Todaiji Temple, Horyuji Temple, and others including numerous Buddhist art and architecture classified as National Treasures and Important Cultural Asset.
The ancient capital, Nara Heijokyo, established in 710 A.D. and modeled on Changan, Capital of Tang Dynasty China, was an international city, designated by World Heritage as a historical asset. Nara will soon celebrate the 13th centennial anniversary of its founding. A city plan is being undertaken with 'history', 'culture' and 'friendship exchange' as key words, looking forward to the next 100 years or 1,000 years to come.

 

http://www.pref.nara.jp/nara_e/

 

Nara localitÓ turistica di montagna in svizzera nel ticino vicino Bellinzona

http://www.nara2000.ch

 

Amici del Nara SA

CH-6716 Leontica (TI)

tel: +41 (0)91 871 11 11

fax: +41 (0)91 871 10 34

in Australia Ŕ un parco acquatico

http://www.seaworldnara.com.au/

 

A number of options are available to travel from the Gold Coast or Brisbane airports to Sea World Nara Resort.

Our Tour Desk or Concierge will book and confirm transfers for you. Simply send through your flight details via email to tours@seaworldnara.com.au or phone the details to us on 07 5591 0093. Remember to keep us informed should any of your arrival or departure times and dates alter.

 

 

Fiume in Russia lungo circa 158 chilometri

Nara River (???? in Russian) is a river in the Moscow Oblast and Kaluga Oblast in Russia. It is a left tributary of the Oka River. The length of the river is 158 km. The area of its basin is 2030 sq km. The Nara River freezes up in November-December and stays under the ice until April. The cities of Naro-Fominsk and Serpukhov are located on the Nara River.

 

The Tretiakovs Factory in Serpukhov and a Bridge over the Nara River

Naro-Fominsk (Russian: ??´??-????´???) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia, situated 70 km southwest from Moscow, on the Nara River. Population: 70,475 (2002 Census).

Naro-Fominsk was established as an urban-type settlement as a result of the merger of the villages of Fominskoye and Malaya Nara in 1925. Town status was granted to it in 1926. The town was severely damaged during World War II, after Nazi Germany forces destroyed 687 buildings and a textile factory.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nara_River

 

 

 

Il Tailandia c’Ŕ questo fiume

The Bang Nara Path Bang Nara River is compared to the vein of Narathiwat Province since all living things have been nurtured throughout the length of the river which stretches along the coastal plains parallel to the sea on the east coast for a distance of approximately 60 kilometers. The river has a water detention area of 1,158 square kilometers and contains an average of 2,383.79 million cubic meters of water each year. It flows past the areas of Muang and Tak Bai Districts, and enters the sea at two locations: directly into the Gulf of Thailand at the river delta in Muang District, and into the Gulf of Thailand through Ko-Lok River at Tak Bai District which is the border between Thailand and Malaysia. Besides, it consists of many tributaries including Ya Kang Canal, Toh Jeh Canal, Klong Chuab Canal and Sungai-padee Canal.

http://www.chaipat.or.th/chaipat/journal/dec01/eng/bangnara.html

 

 


http://narbonne.latitude-gallimard.com/narbonne-rubrique0014.html

 

Narvik

CttÓ della Norvegia

 

http://www.narvikinfo.no/

 

Lettera da Kestutis Lituanaia

 

Thank you for the very interesting HEOS magazine. And especially for the excellent article about the river names. One question: The Latin name "Nar" is masculine. Is Italian "Nera" feminine? So is "Neris". But Latin Nar (masculine) in Lithuanian would be "Naras" The same as naras=diver or the (diving) bird naras=grebe (podiceps minor).

So now I just wish to answer your questions.

1. More about Lewis and Short: Latin-English Lexicon?
A LATIN DICTIONARY; founded on E.A. Andrew's edition of Freund's Latin-German dictionary. By Charlton Thomas LEWIS (1834-1904) and Charles SHORT(1831-1866). 2019 p. 26 cm
First ed. published in 1850; revised edition 1955. Oxford, Clarendon Press. ISNB: 0198642016. Available from Amazon for 200 dollars.

2. L'autore di: "Solporeas [sulfureas] posuit spiramina Naris ad undas"?
- Quintus Ennius, l. 6. Annalium.
Enn. ap. Prisc. p. 691 P. (Ann. v. 265 Vahl.) probably means: Ennius apud Priscianum Caesarensem (et apud Johannem Vahlen)?

Quintus Ennius (239-169 B.C.), the founder of Roman literature, was an epic poet, dramatist, and satirist. His epic Annales, the story of Rome from Aeneas until Ennius' day, was the national epic until Vergil's Aeneid replaced it.
Priscianus Caesariensis, fl. 500 A.D., Latin grammarian. (Commentarii grammatici in 18 books)
Joannes Vahlen (1830-1911), editor of the Fragments of Ennius, Lucilius, etc.
Vide etiam: Havet, L. (1886), "Ennius apud Priscianum 10, 26", Revue de Philologie, 10, p. 188

 

The Eugubine Tables

 

The most important testimony relating to the Umbrian people is constituted by the "Eugubine Tables", which were discovered in 1444, carefully buried under the vestiges of the Roman theatre in Gubbio. The series of sacred texts engraved on the bronze of these famous tablets, compiled between the 3rd and 1st century B.C. in the Umbrian language using the Etruscan alphabet and the Latin alphabet, is a fundamental, or rather, unique, source for understanding and interpreting the Italic languages, as well as an essential document in relation to our historical knowledge of the organisation of the cities, the foundation rites according to which they were governed, the organisation in the territory of the various Umbrian communities, and the relations that existed with neighbouring ethnic groups. It is worth recalling the prayer that the Ikuvini, in other words the inhabitants of the present-day town of Gubbio, addressed to their tutelary gods to protect them from attack by enemy peoples, such as the Nahartes, recognised as the inhabitants of the Terni basin in which the river Nera (Nahar) flows, the Japuski, probably Adriatic peoples like the Picenes and the Iapigi, and lastly the Turskum nomen, namely the nearby Etruscan nation.

 

 

http://www.itinerari.umbria2000.it/?idCont=203050

 

http://www.paesaggi.umbria2000.it/?IDCont=203043

 

 

 

Ricerca su Wikipedia in lingua inglese

http://www.qwika.com/find/nahar?int=20

 

ci sono moltissime ricorrenze

Nahal India

A well-laid out picturesque town of Nahan is situated on an isolated ridge in the Shiwalik hills, overlooking green fields. Known for its cleanliness and dust free streets, saints and princes are linked with the origin of Nahan. The city was founded as a capital by Raja Karan Prakash in 1621. Another version recalls a saint who lived with a companionable Nahar on the site where the Nahan palace now stands. "Nahar" means a lion and probably the town takes its name from this saint.

At an altitude of 9,32m, Nahan is a good base for visits to the surrounding pilgrim areas viz. Renuka, Paonta Sahib, Trilokpur temple and the Suketi Fossil Park. It has a pleasant climate throughout the year and is watered by man made lake and decorated with temples and gardens. It is also the headquarter of Sirmaur district.

 

http://www.himachaltourism.net/nahan.html

 

Eufrate Irak

Euphrates in the Bible

 

A river named Euphrates is one of the four rivers that flow from the Garden of Eden according to Genesis 2:14. It is the fourth river, after the Pishon, the Gihon, and the Tigris, to form from the river flowing out of the garden. The river of the same name marked one of the boundaries of the land promised by God to Abraham and his descendants (Isaac, Jacob, etc). In the Hebrew Bible, it is often referred to simply as "The River" (ha-nahar).

The word Euphrates is a translation for the word "Gush forth" or "break forth". It has always been assumed to mean "river" but this is not explicitly stated. It literally means "breaking forth of liquid". The river Euphrates was named from this root word, "To gush forth".

In the Book of Revelation, it is prophesied that in the "near future the Potamos Euphrates or "breaking forth like water" of the middle east will dry up in preparation for the Battle of Armageddon.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euphrates

 

Nahal India

A well-laid out picturesque town of Nahan is situated on an isolated ridge in the Shiwalik hills, overlooking green fields. Known for its cleanliness and dust free streets, saints and princes are linked with the origin of Nahan. The city was founded as a capital by Raja Karan Prakash in 1621. Another version recalls a saint who lived with a companionable Nahar on the site where the Nahan palace now stands. "Nahar" means a lion and probably the town takes its name from this saint.

At an altitude of 9,32m, Nahan is a good base for visits to the surrounding pilgrim areas viz. Renuka, Paonta Sahib, Trilokpur temple and the Suketi Fossil Park. It has a pleasant climate throughout the year and is watered by man made lake and decorated with temples and gardens. It is also the headquarter of Sirmaur district.

http://www.himachaltourism.net/nahan.html

Eufrate Irak

Euphrates in the BibleA river named Euphrates is one of the four rivers that flow from the Garden of Eden according to Genesis 2:14. It is the fourth river, after the Pishon, the Gihon, and the Tigris, to form from the river flowing out of the garden. The river of the same name marked one of the boundaries of the land promised by God to Abraham and his descendants (Isaac, Jacob, etc). In the Hebrew Bible, it is often referred to simply as "The River" (ha-nahar). The word Euphrates is a translation for the word "Gush forth" or "break forth". It has always been assumed to mean "river" but this is not explicitly stated. It literally means "breaking forth of liquid". The river Euphrates was named from this root word, "To gush forth". In the Book of Revelation, it is prophesied that in the "near future the Potamos Euphrates or "breaking forth like water" of the middle east will dry up in preparation for the Battle of Armageddon.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euphrates

 

Enciclopedia del 1600 in lingua latina relativa a Nar

HOFMANN, Johann Jacob (1635-1706): Lexicon Universale. Leiden, 1698. 32,1 x 17,3 cm; 3951 pages in 4 volumes. T. 3: Literas M, N, O, P, Q, continens; page 274, image: s0274a http://www.uni-mannheim.de/mateo/camenaref/hofmann/hof3/s0274a.html N A R N A Straboni, vel Narnia, Umbriae civitas, per quam Nar fluv. labitur, a quo et nomen accepti, Liv. l. 10. c. 9. Olim Nequinum dicebatur, teste Plini˘, l. 3. c. 14. a nequitia incolarum, qui obsessi, se liberosque occidere quam dedere maluerunt. Patria Nervae Imperatoris et Ioh. XIV. Pontificis. Ad montis est radices, Ferrar. et in parte meridionali, rupes habet admodum praecipites, quarum imo in hiatu Nar, per scopulos, confragos˘ alve˘ labitur. Municipes huius loci Nartes quondam dictos fuisse, ex antiquis marmoribus docet Hermolaus. Plinio vero Narnienses. Sic enim ille l. 31. c. 4. Inagro Narniensi quaedam terrae imbribus sicciores fiunt, quod admirandis suis inseruit M. Cicero, siccitate lutum fieri prodens, imbre autem pulverem. Nerni hodie dicitur Leandro. Sil. l. 8. v. 458. Hispellum ac duro monti per saxa recumbens Narnia. ---- ---- Martial. l. 7. Epigr. 92. Narnia sulfure˘ quam gurgite candidus amnis. Circuit, ancipiti vix adeunda iug˘. Claudian. de 6. Consul Honorii. v. 515. Celsa dehinc patulum prospectans Narnia campum Regali calcatur equo; rarique coloris Non procul amnis abest urbi, qui nominis auctor Ilice sub densÔ silvis arctatus opacis Inter utrumque iugum tortis anfractibus albet. Vide Cluver. Ital. Ant. l. 2. p. 637. Nic. Lloydius. Vide

http://www.uni-mannheim.de/mateo/camenaref/hofmann/n/books/n_205.html

Toponimi ed Etimologia

TOPONYMY and ETYMOLOGY - YOUR STUDY of place names and their origin - for me is a NEW and unfamiliar field. So, as much as I would wish it, I cannot help you much. Only, may be, to share a few things which I just discovered - - but which probably are already OLD and well known to you.

Are you familiar with ANTONIO SCIARRETTA? He seems also to be very interested in YOUR FIELD - as he says - "in the study of the place-names of Europe in the 1st millennium b.C. and before, as recorded in Greek and Roman sources... [and]... to reconstruct, for what is possible, the linguistic conditions in the Old Europe (and not only)"? (See http://digilander.libero.it/toponomastica/antonio.html

and http://digilander.libero.it/toponomastica/ancient-topo.html ).

May be you already know! But if not - I just thought you might wish to see what he writes about Iguvium, Nar and Nequinum-Narnia: Iguvium Ě Place: Gubbio, province Perugia, region Umbria, Italy Ě Name: Iguvium (Ptol., Sil.) Iguium (Plin.) Ě Etymology: The suffix -uvium is rather clear, but the stem, consisting of only two phonemes, is considered obscure (UTET). An hypothesis, reported by UTET is that the earlier form of the name was *Pikuvium '(town, tribe) of the woodpecker', that became Iguvium after loss of initial p, a development that is typical of Gaulish. But actually the stem may be compared with Igilium i., and attributed to some pre-Etruscan, pre-Umbrian (as an Eastern Italic language) stratum. Ě NAR fl. Place: river Nera, province Terni, region Umbria, Italy Name: Nar fl. (Plin., Sil.) Etymology: The name is usually explained from an hydronymic stem *ner-/nar- (UTET) to which many river-names are related (see Naronus fl.). According to Pokorny, all these river-names are derived from the IE root *ner- 'to conceal, cover, hiding place, hollow'. But in this case the ablaut form nar- looks strange and can only be explained from an A-language or from a particular development of the sonant r.

NEQUINUM, NARNIA Place: Narni, province Terni, region Umbria, Italy Name: Nequinum (Plin., Liv., Hor.) Narnia (Ptol., Plin., Liv., Sil., Burd.) Etymology: Unknown. For the presence of q the name can hardly be of Umbrian (Eastern Italic) origin. The town took the name Narnia when it became a Roman colony (before 299 b.C.). This second name derives from that of the river Nar fl. (See http://digilander.libero.it/toponomastica/umbria.html ).

Antonio Sciaretta also suggests a very interesting forum devoted to discussing Indo-European linguistics which is called the CYBALIST: http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/cybalist/

 

Heos articolo Nahar

publicazione su Heos relativa a Nahar

 

 

 


 

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